+ General Country Information
+ History
+ Concept of Time
+ Family and friends
+ Gender
+ I or We Attitudes
+ Manners and Taboos
+ Spiritual care
+ Communication Style
+ Greetings
+ Language and Communication
+ Non-verbal Communication - Eye contact
+ Non-verbal Communication - Gestures
+ Non-verbal Communication - Personal Space
+ Attitudes and understanding of dementia and other health issues
+ Attitudes to end of life care
+ Attitudes to pain
+ Attitudes to residential care
+ Care information
+ Cultural Activities
+ Cultural Traits
+ Food and Diet
+ Music
+ Special Days - Christmas
+ Special Days - Easter
+ Special Days - New Year
+ Special Days - Other
+ Superstitions

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Generalist

  • Hungary is located in the continent of Europe.
  • Budapest is the capital of Hungary.
  • Hungary shares land borders with the following seven countries: Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.
  • Hungary ranks as the 110th largest country with a total area of 93,028 square kilometres (Central Intelligence Agency n.d.).
  • The population of Hungary is 9,897,541 (Central Intelligence Agency 2015).
  • The major ethnic groups of Hungary include: Hungarian 85.6%, Roma 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6% (Central Intelligence Agency 2011).
  • The climate in Hungary consists of four distinct seasons, including warm summers and cold winters.

Tips

  • Understand that a person’s country of birth does not define their culture. Whilst we are “born into culture” we are not “born with culture”. A person’s “culture” is something that is learnt from our environment and by our individual experiences. It continuously adapts to our changing circumstances throughout our lives.
  • Determine what culture or cultures your care recipient identifies with.
  • Keep in mind that the culture in metropolitan areas varies with culture in rural areas and that culture in different regions within a country may also vary significantly.
  • Learn about your care recipient’s life history, and who they identify with, to determine their individual cultural traits. Document any significant details.
  • Understand how your care recipient’s culture informs their values, behaviours, beliefs assumptions, likes, dislikes and sensitivities.

Resources

Generalist

History of Migration to Australia

  • A few Hungarians arrived in Australia during the gold rush of 1850s. They were followed by others fleeing cholera and fleeing persecution in 1848-49 however, the Hungarian population remained small until the mid-1900s.
  • A few hundred Hungarians came to Australia between 1890 to early 1900, due to a rural depression in Hungary.
  • When World War I broke out, Hungarian-born people in Australia were temporarily interned as enemy aliens.
  • In 1920, the Enemy Aliens Act was introduced which prohibited further entry to Australia of any Hungarian people for five years.
  • Hungarian Jews fled to Australia in 1939 to escape the Nazis during World War II.
  • Hungarian Jewish Holocaust survivors came to Australia following World War II in 1945, as well as thousands of Hungarian refugees in the next five years. About 17,000 people spent time in ‘Displaced Persons Camps’ before arriving in Australia.
  • Further Hungarian migration occurred as a result of the Hungarian uprising of 1956, where Australia provided refuge to about 14,000 people.
  • Hungarian migrants included people of rural or village background in the earlier waves of migration, whilst the later waves of migration included a large proportion of younger tradesmen and factory workers.
  • It should be noted that people who live in Australia and identify as Hungarian may have been born in the surrounding countries. This is because of the dismantling of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after WW1.

History of Hungary

  • Refer to History Resources section

Tips

  • Determine exactly where your care recipient was born and where they lived. For example; was your care recipient born in Australia, or did they migrate to Australia? If they migrated, how and why did your care recipient migrate to Australia? What experiences and associations do they have of their home country? If they have lived in other countries; where have they lived? How long did they spend in other countries and what did they do whilst they were there?
  • Be aware and sensitive to any stress that may have been experienced as a result of their history (this may include; family separation, homesickness, conflict, depression and isolation).
  • The knowledge of a person’s history may assist with a better understanding of the care recipient as well as any associated psychological issues resulting from their past.
  • Understand how your care recipient’s culture informs their values, behaviours, beliefs assumptions, likes, dislikes and sensitivities and document any significant details.

Resources

Generalist

  • Hungary is defined as being an “individualist” culture.
  • This means that Hungary is a society where the preference is for people to look after themselves and their immediate family.
  • Hungary scores an 80 on the Individualism versus Collectivism index (IDV) (Hofstede centre).
  • The index scale ranges from 0-100 with 50 as a mid-level. The low numbers indicate “collectivist” cultures, and high numbers indicate “individualist” cultures.

Tips

  • Identify and document if your care recipient is an “individualist” with an “I” attitude of self and immediate family, or a “collectivist” with a “we” or group attitude, or if they have both “collectivist” and “individualist” traits.
  • Allow for a “collectivist” person to feel the comfort of doing most things in a group setting and for an “individualist” person to have more opportunities for themselves.

Resources

Generalist

In Hungary

  • The major religious affiliations in Hungary include: Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9% (Central Intelligence Agency 2011). There are also large proportions of Hungarians who indicated they do not have any religious affiliations, and those who did not provide this information (18.2% and 27.2% respectively).

In Australia

  • Hungarian people in Australia are predominantly Catholic.
  • Other religions recorded in the Census include: Jewish, Presbyterian and Reformed Christians (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011). There are also Hungary-born Australians who indicated that they do not have any religion (15.1%), and those who did not state a religion (5.2%) (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011).

General

  • Different cultures and religions have different expectations of care in regards to toileting, dressing and feeding.
  • Every culture and religion vary greatly in spiritual needs and this may impact on the acceptability of certain treatments and medications. Therefore, it is paramount to identify the care recipient’s religion and cultural background to appropriately address the supports and services required.
  • For further information, refer to Spiritual care resources.

Tips

  • Accept and respect that customs, religious and spiritual beliefs vary from one culture to another and that the beliefs of your care recipient may significantly differ to your own beliefs.
  • Utilise resources and attend training sessions to increase your own knowledge about different religious and spiritual beliefs.
  • It is useful to ask care recipients a range of questions such as; ‘what helps you cope in difficult times’ and ‘what is important to you’ to determine ways to enhance their care.
  • Be aware of the significance of spiritual needs to your care recipient. Identify and document their religious beliefs and spiritual needs such as; any special requirements regarding food, personal care, linguistic needs or religious impacts towards treatments and/or medication.
  • Identify and provide access to relevant religious literature, radio, TV, live stream services, DVDs and CDs.
  • Support care recipients to maintain religious networks and religious representation and facilitate outings to places of worship.
  • Acknowledge and observe days of religious significance to your care recipients in a culturally appropriate manner.

Resources

Generalist

  • Priority to the extended family is common amongst Hungarian people.
  • Family is central to Hungarian society.
  • Financial support and emotional support are provided within the family network.
  • It is common for extended family to live together and grandparents often play a role in raising their grandchildren.

Tips

  • Be aware and sensitive to the fact that some people may have become separated from family for a range of reasons including; Stolen Generations, war, conflict, disaster or migration.
  • Families and friends from different cultures will have a different understanding of dementia and their expectation of care for their loved one may vary significantly.
  • Provide communication and information in accordance with their language and literacy level and facilitate all achievable care expectations.
  • Gain an understanding of the dynamics of your care recipient’s family and friends and engage with them whenever required/needed.
  • Ensure that roles in decision-making about care of the person with dementia have been clearly established and documented.
  • Research indicates that carers of people living with dementia experience greater strain and distress than carers of other people.
  • It is important to be sensitive to the feelings of shame and guilt that family members and friends may be experiencing.

“Family and friends” resources

  • A range of information to help support family and friends is available in the “Family and friends, resources” section below.
  • A range of health information helpsheets in Hungarian is available in the “Language and communication, resources” section of this app.

Resources

Generalist

In Australia

  • The main languages spoken by Hungarian-born Australians at home are Hungarian, English and German (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011).
  • The majority of Hungarian-born Australians (87.8%) who reported that they speak another language at home indicated that they speak English very well or well, whilst about 10.4% indicated that they do not speak English well or not at all (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011).

In Hungary

  • Hungarian is the official language of Hungary.
  • Other languages spoken within Hungary include: English, German, Russian, Romanian and French (Central Intelligence Agency 2011).

Tips

  • Being able to communicate effectively is crucial to the physical and emotional well-being of the care recipient.
  • Be careful not to underestimate or assume the communication capacity of a person with dementia.
  • Ensure that the care recipient has participation in decisions that affect them.
  • The words you use when speaking to, and about, a person with dementia matters. It is important to always use positive and enabling language and to not use words that may cause offense.
  • Ensure the health care and personal care plans and reviews identify and support the linguistic needs of your care recipient and their family.  Be mindful that linguistic considerations should include the care recipients’ menu choices, food services, their religious and spiritual needs, and their ability to participate in activities. Determine what language(s) they are able to speak, read and write. Communicate with them and provide information according to their language preference and literacy level.
  • Identify and record and health issues such as poor hearing, poor eyesight, dehydration or problems with dentures to ensure there is no miscommunication with your care recipient.
  • Be aware that most people with dementia will revert back to their native tongue and/or other languages they have learnt.
  • Care recipients should always be given the choice to use professional translators and interpreters. Provide professional translators and interpreters to your care recipients and/or to their family whenever they request the need, when the care plan is developed, when the care plan is reviewed and at any time when “informed consent” is required.
  • Care recipients often prefer to communicate with a care worker from their own cultural background therefore the use of bilingual staff or volunteers should be always be considered and provided whenever possible. The care recipient should however be given this choice rather than it be assumed that this is their preference.
  • Provide visual aids, use gestures and physical prompts, and learn and use key words in the person’s own language to improve communication during routine care and other simple service interventions.
  • Ensure that communication is adapted to the care recipient’s level of dementia and understand the importance of allowing more time for those in later stages to understand and respond to you.
  • Support your care recipients' individual choices by providing access to media such as radio, TV, live stream services, DVDs, CDs and books in their preferred language.
  • All staff and volunteers should undertake training in cultural awareness, appropriate communication and the correct use of telephone and on-site interpreting services.

Language and Communication resources

  • Refer to the “Language and Communication, Resources” section below for a wide range of information (including communication cards, signage, health information in community languages, etc.)
  • Translating and Interpreter contact details and other relevant information is available in the "Links, Translating and Interpreting" section. 

Advice and Support

  • Seek advice and support from the Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service (DBMAS) if required – phone 1800 699 799.
     

Resources

Generalist

  • Older generation Hungarians may bow at women.
  • Full titles are generally used in business settings.

Man greeting Man

  • A handshake when meeting is common.
  • For men that are known to each other, a one armed hug whilst shaking hands with the other is common.

Woman greeting Woman

  • A handshake is common on first meeting
  • It tradition for women that know each other to kiss each other’s cheeks (starting with the left side).

Greetings between Men & Women

  • A handshake (if initiated by the woman) is common for initial meetings. If a woman does not offer her hand a simple nod of acknowledgement may be used.
  • If the man and woman are known to each other then it is tradition to kiss each other’s cheeks (starting with the left side).
  • A man may kiss a woman’s hand in some formal situations.

Tips

  • Start building trust and rapport from the first time you meet your care recipient. Ensure you correctly pronounce their name. Smile and speak clearly. Be respectful and make sure the care recipient understands you.
  • Establish and document how your care recipient prefers to be greeted. Take into account; formality, titles, preferred name(s), any different greeting expectations from different genders or from people from a different generation, and the way(s) they like and dislike to be greeted. 
  • Understand that a person with severe dementia will think that each time they see you during the day is for the first time. Therefore ensure that you greet them in an appropriate, friendly and caring manner each time you meet.

Language and Communication resources

  • Translating and Interpreter contact details and other relevant information is available in the "Links, Translating and Interpreting" section. 

Advice and Support

  • Seek advice and support from the Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service (DBMAS) if required – phone 1800 699 799.

Resources

Generalist

  • The communication style of Hungarians tends to be quite direct and open when they are speaking in Hungarian.
  • Hungarian people are however often more passive when they are speaking in English. Therefore, further questions may need to be asked to clarify what they think or want.
  • Expecting friends to share private and intimate details of their personal lives is not considered intrusive by Hungarian people, it is instead considered part of the familiarity process.

Tips

Care recipient

  • Identify the communication style of your care recipient.
  • Be aware that communication styles vary from one culture to another.
  • Realise that physical, sensory, psychological and social issues can impact on the ability to communicate effectively. Make a note of any that are relevant to your care recipient.

Care worker

  • To ensure that the care recipient can understand you avoid speaking too quickly or using slang, acronyms or jargon. Also try not to give too much information at one time.
  • Be aware not to use patronising speech or a demeaning tone as this can lead to a communication breakdown.
  • Remember than non-verbal communication such as body language is just as important as verbal communication. Ensure that your tone matches your body language to avoid miscommunication.
  • Be kind and caring in your communication with the care recipient. Remember the person with dementia has a lifetime of experiences and is a person with feelings, even though may have lost the capacity to think or behave like they used to.

Language and Communication resources

  • Translating and Interpreter contact details and other relevant information is available in the "Links, Translating and Interpreting" section. 

Advice and Support

  • Seek advice and support from the Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service (DBMAS) if required – phone 1800 699 799.

Resources

Generalist

  • Hungarians prefer direct eye contact.
  • Direct eye contact is considered as a sign of honesty and respect to the person you are having a conversation with.

Tips

  • Determine and document if the care recipient prefers direct or indirect eye contact and if there are any different expectations from different genders or from people from a different generation.

Resources

Generalist

  • When counting on the hand, Hungarian people generally use their thumb to signify the number one. To indicate the number two, their thumb and pointer finger is used.
  • It is considered rude to point your finger. Instead, to draw attention to something it is preferable to flick a finger in the direction and then draw it back, whilst motioning your head and eyes in the same direction.

Tips

  • Any gestures you use need to be respectful to the person with dementia.
  • Body language can provide important clues and increased understanding for both the carer and the care recipient. However many gestures have different meanings in different cultures therefore take care to ensure there is no miscommunication.
  • Document any gestures that the care recipient prefers to use or any gestures they find offensive.
  • Determine if the care recipient has expectations from different genders or from people from a different generation in relation to the use of touch. For example; if they find it appropriate/comforting for someone to hold their hand when they are upset or in pain.

Generalist

  • The amount of personal space considered appropriate is often determined by the relationship of the people conversing.
  • An arm’s length is common when starting a conversation with another person of a higher status.
  • Friends and family generally do not have personal space restrictions.
  • Strangers may stand close and speak near another person’s face.
  • Touch during conversation is not commonplace, unless the speakers are family or close friends.
  • Very close female friends may hold hands or lock arms.

Tips

  • Determine and document how the care recipient feels about their personal space and if there are any different expectations from different genders or from people from a different generation.
  • Allow for a “collectivist” person (with a “we” or group attitude) to feel the comfort of doing most things in the space with others (group settings) and for an “individualist” person (with an “I” attitude of self and immediate family) to have opportunities to have personal space for themselves.

Resources

Generalist

  • Hungarian people are generally punctual.
  • Punctuality is the norm, particularly in business situations.
  • It is common for Hungarians to either arrive on time or early for appointments.

Tips

  • Determine and document how the care recipient and the family view “the concept of time”. For example; do they like to be punctual? Do they expect others to be punctual?
  • Ensure the care recipient's concept of time does not adversely impact on meal times, activities and other scheduled events.
  • Be mindful that shaming and blaming someone for being late can cause feelings of guilt and low self-esteem. Instead, use positive communication. For example; you might ask “Would a different time would be more suitable”?

Resources

Generalist

Global Gender Gap Index 2016 rankings

  • Hungary was ranked 101st on a global index measuring gender equality out of 144 countries. (World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Report 2016).

Marriage

  • Laws state that married couples have joint legal responsibility the family’s expenses.
  • The courts will grant divorce at the request of either or both spouses if their marriage has irretrievably broken down.

Inheritance

  • Men and women have equal right to inheritance.
  • Inheritance practices are not influenced by customary or religious laws.

Same Sex Relationships

  • Hungary was ranked 19th with a score of 49.7% on the Rainbow Europe Country Ranking. On this scale, 0% represents gross violations of human rights and discrimination and 100% represents respect of human rights and full equality. (Rainbow Europe)

Tips

  • For many people with dementia the gender of the care workers is important, particularly in sensitive situations. Determine and document if they have any preferences, concerns or expectations regarding care provided by someone of a different gender.
  • Accept and respect that male-female roles in families may vary significantly among different cultures.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersexed (LGBTI) people with dementia

  • Don’t assume the gender preference of the person with dementia.
  • Recognise that even those that have children may not be completely heterosexual and understand that it could take some time for a care recipient to gain enough trust to share personal information about their gender preference.
  • Begin by evaluating yourself and any assumptions, phobias, biases or beliefs that you might hold internally.
  • Utilise resources and attend training sessions to increase your own knowledge about LGBTI people.
  • Understand the importance of your first and immediate reaction or response. Be aware of your own reactions - not only what you think, but also be aware of what you say and what body language you use.
  • Most LGBTI people have experienced rejection, stigma, discrimination and abuse and therefore have a fear of receiving inadequate treatment, being denied services or facing further discrimination or prejudice. It is vitally important to create a non-judgmental open and caring atmosphere free from discrimination. Confidentiality is also a vital aspect of care for LGBTI care recipients.
  • Be careful with the terminology you use to the care recipient and their partners.
  • Provide partners of LGBTI care recipients with the same respect and privileges that you would give to a spouse or relative.      

Resources

Generalist

World Alzheimer’s Day

  • Alzheimer associations around the world unite for World Alzheimer’s Day on the 21st of September, to make a difference for people with dementia and their families and carers worldwide.

Dementia in Hungary

  • It was estimated that there were 148,927 Hungarians (1.5% of the population) with dementia in 2012 (Alzheimer’s Europe).

Illness and disability

  • Stigma exits in the Hungarian community towards some illnesses and disabilities.
  • Whilst attitudes may be improving, Hungarian people may still shun illnesses such as; Down Syndrome, Epilepsy and Mental illness.

Tips

  • The amount of understanding and acceptance of dementia may vary significantly among different cultures, families and individuals. Determine the understanding of dementia of the care recipient and their family, if they accept dementia and if stigma is associated.
  • Provide information to the care recipient and their family according to their language preference and literacy level.
  • Ensure that people with dementia and their families are aware of dementia information and of support services available.

Dementia resources

  • A wide range of information is available in the Attitudes and understanding of dementia disability and illness, resources section below.
  • Contact details for Alzheimer’s Australia offices are available in the “Links, Alzheimer’s Australia offices” section of this app.

Advice and Support

  • Seek advice and support from the Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service (DBMAS) if required – phone 1800 699 799.

Resources

Generalist

  • Elderly Hungarian people would traditionally be cared for by one of their children in their own home and this would be acknowledged in their share of the inheritance. Multiple children may share the caring role.
  • Residential care facilities were originally ‘poor houses’ where elderly people were sent for economic reasons. Once placed, people were forgotten and left feeling isolated.
  • More recently residential care facilities have come into existence in Hungary.
  • Hungarian people may feel stigmatised if they are unable care for of their own family members.
  • Hungarian-born Australians may not have extended family.
  • In Australia, Hungarian people may be accepting of residential care.

Tips

  • The meaning or value of residential or community care may vary greatly among cultures.
  • Be aware that many people will not want to hear about or talk about residential care until crisis point.
  • Understand that families and friends from different cultures will have different expectations for the care of people, particularly in regards to toileting, dressing, feeding and other self-help skills.
  • Allow the care recipient and their family to make choices to suit the individual’s care needs.
  • Ask care recipients questions about what can be done to achieve quality of life and help them have meaningful lives that enable them to pursue their cultural interests and passions in accordance with any frailty, disability or cognitive impairment.
  • Understand and facilitate all achievable care expectations of the care recipient and their family.

Resources

Generalist

  • Pain killers and other forms of treatment are usually accepted by Hungarians.
  • Pain behaviour studies suggest there is a need to be cautious of ethnic or cultural stereotypes. Therefore, even though there are findings of general cultural differences it is considered very important to evaluate the pain of each person individually.
  • Clinical recommendations regarding pain treatment are available in the “Attitudes to pain Resources” section of this app.

Tips

  • Research indicates that pain and discomfort are frequently under reported and under treated amongst people with dementia.
  • Ensure care recipients and their family understand pain relief medication and treatment options by providing information in their preferred language and in accordance with their language ability.
  • Religion and culture may influence your care recipients pain experience including; their pain expression, pain language, remedies for pain, social roles and expectations and perceptions of the medical care system.
  • Understand that for some religious or spiritual beliefs, fate and/or karma may mean that your care recipient also believes their illness and pain are caused by a higher power.
  • Care recipients may feel it is important to accept their pain in order to demonstrate their religious / spiritual faith. This may also impact their request for pain medication and treatment.
  • Identify and support the cultural and religious impact on the acceptability of certain treatments and medications.
  • Identify, respect and document how your care recipient and their family view and express pain.
  • Pay particular attention to verbal expressions of pain during later stages of dementia and ensure adequate treatment is provided.

Resources

Generalist

  • Hungarians may have a very vocal reaction to a diagnosis of a terminal illness.
  • Many Hungarians are religious and do not fear death, but rather believe it is nature’s destiny.
  • A bedside vigil and a visit from a priest for last rites is common.
  • Following death, families usually have a viewing of their loved one’s body before they are buried.
  • Cremation may not be accepted by some Hungarian people.
  • A sound understanding of the dying patient’s meaning of end of life care is imperative to truly deliver individualised palliative care.

Tips

  • Understand that attitudes to end of life care, death and dying are diverse and may include a range of factors such as cultural and religious beliefs.
  • Be aware that the acceptance of certain treatments and medications are likely to be impacted upon by cultural and religious factors.
  • Identify and support “end of life choices” of care recipients and their family. Note: these are formally known as “Advanced Care Directives” or “Advanced Care Planning” depending on the state or territory in Australia that you are in. Ensure their choices are documented and strictly followed.
  • Ensure the linguistic needs of care recipients are addressed in end of life religious and spiritual support.
  • Ensure family members have access to appropriate resources and support in their preferred language and in accordance with their language ability.

Resources

Generalist

  • Giving someone the middle finger is considered very offensive.
  • It is also considered rude to spit, wear a hat indoors or to speak to another person with hands in your pocket.
  • Yawning without covering your mouth is also frowned upon.

Tips

  • “Manners” and “taboo” expectations and beliefs may vary greatly among cultures resulting in differing emotions and behaviours in your care recipient.
  • Be aware of your own beliefs and expectations of “manners” and “taboo” beliefs and how these may differ to those of your care recipient.
  • Be aware of judging other people's behaviour, expectations and beliefs according to the standards of your own culture.
  • Be aware that the care recipient may judge your behaviour according to the standard of their own culture.
  • It is important to recognise, accept and document individual interpretations of “manners” and “taboo” expectations and beliefs of your care recipient and their family.

Resources

Generalist

Many Hungarian superstitious beliefs are focussed around luck.

Associations with good luck include:

  • Unintentionally putting clothes on inside out
  • The presence of spiders in the house. Furthermore, it is considered back luck to harm these spiders
  • Finding horseshoes
  • Finding four-leaf clovers
  • Seeing a chimney sweeper

Superstitions believed to bring bad luck include:

  • A black cat crossing your path
  • Breaking a mirror
  • Spilling salt. However, this may be remedied if you throw some of the spilt salt over your left shoulder
  • Friday the 13th
  • Using the left-foot first when getting out of bed
  • Putting on your left shoe first

Other superstitions focus on left and right, such as:

  • Ringing in the left ear is said to bring good news whilst ringing in the right ear will bring bad news.
  • An itching left palm is thought to bring money whilst itching of the right palm means that you will spend money.

Tips

  • Superstitions may be considered as old wives’ tales, family traditions or have a significant meaning and be taken seriously.
  • Be aware of your own beliefs and how these may differ to those of your care recipient.
  • Be aware of judging other people's superstitious beliefs according to the standards of your own culture.
  • Be aware that the care recipient may judge your beliefs according to the standard of their own culture.
  • It is important to recognise, accept and document individual interpretations of superstitious beliefs.

Resources

Generalist

  • The main meal of the day is usually eaten and midday.
  • Hungarian food is generally hearty.
  • Many Hungarians add the spice paprika to their food.
  • Some popular dishes include: thick soups with noodles, vegetables and meat; "Porkolt" (a meat stew usually made with veal, beef or chicken); "Toltott Kaposzta" (stuffed cabbage leaves); Goulash with dumplings; Paprika chicken; Pancakes filled with jam.
  • Common meats eaten include; pork, beef and poultry.
  • Vegetables are often served in a sauce.
  • Salads are generally topped with salad dressing.

Dining etiquette

  • It is polite to arrive on time for a meal, although being 5 minutes late is generally accepted.
  • If invited to a large gathering or party it is best not to arrive any later than 30 minutes.
  • The host may request guests to remove their shoes before entering the house.
  • Hungarian people may not wish to give a tour of their house so it is best not to ask.

Table manners

  • Hungarian people tend to have formal table manners.
  • The fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right during a meal.
  • A toast wishing the guests a hearty appetite is usually made by the hostess at the beginning of each course.
  • Guests wait until the hostess starts eating before beginning their meal.
  • The guest of honour will generally make the first toast.
  • Elbows are to be kept off the table, and hands are to be visible at all times.
  • The number of dishes on offer are a sign of hospitality, and it is important for guests to try them all.
  • Knives and forks are crossed on the plate to signal that eating is not finished.
  • Placing the knife and fork parallel across the right side of the plate shows that the meal is finished.
  • Empty glasses are generally refilled, so leaving the glass half full signals that no more drink is needed.
  • Someone usually proposes a toast to the hosts to acknowledge their hospitality.
  • Beer glasses are not clinked.

Tips

  • Food is an important aspect of cultural identity, therefore it is important to identify food preferences, likes and dislikes including eating habits, meal times, preferred setting, preferred eating utensils etc.
  • Identify and facilitate cultural food when possible and ensure the impact of religion on food services is documented, adhered to and regularly reviewed.
  • Provide menu choices and food services information in the preferred language of care recipients, or with pictures if the person has difficulty reading. 
  • Consider alternative ways to facilitate culturally appropriate food such as; obtaining recipes from family/friends, specific meal delivery services, community groups, seniors’ clubs, or and/or other clubs.
  • Ensure that the care recipient is given food choices throughout all stages of dementia.

Food and diet resources

  • A wide range of information (including religious food requirements, nutrition information and recipes) is available in the “Food and diet resources” section below.

Advice and Support

  • Seek advice and support from the Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service (DBMAS) if required – phone 1800 699 799

Resources

Generalist

  • A person-centred care approach helps organisations provide accessible, responsive and flexible services that meet the diverse needs and preferences of people living with dementia in our community. 
  • Many people with dementia want to remain independent for as long as possible and rely on the community care system to help them achieve this.

Additional care considerations for Hungarian people

  • Care standards in Hungary are generally good.
  • There are a wide variety of treatments available in public hospitals.
  • Western medical treatment is accepted, however many Hungarians use alternative medicine such as acupuncture, herbal and homeopathic remedies.
  • Drinking mineral water is also very popular.

Tips

  • Identify and document the care needs of your care recipient and continuously re-evaluate how their dementia progression affects their care needs.
  • Make every effort to understand a dementia behaviour before attempting to manage it, as you will often discover that what lies behind it is a genuine attempt to communicate an unmet need.  

Care information resources

  • A wide range of information is available (e.g. personal hygiene, sleeping, incontinence etc.) in the “Care information, resources” below.
  • Advice and Support - Seek advice and support from the Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service (DBMAS) if required – phone 1800 699 799.
  • Employee/employer resources - A range of information is available under “Links – Other useful weblinks”.

Resources

Generalist

  • Hungarian people are known for being hard-working.
  • Hungarians have strong family values.
  • Hungary has a rich folk crafts tradition, including; embroidery, carvings and pottery.

Tips

  • Everyone has “culture”. This includes a number of factors such as ethnicity, identity, age, gender, education, sexual orientation, ability/disability, values, beliefs, attitudes etc.
  • Recognise your own cultural traits and influences and be mindful not to judge other people’s behaviour and beliefs according to the standard of your own culture.
  • Be aware that your care recipient may judge your behaviour and beliefs according to the standard of their own culture.
  • Your care recipient may be “similar to others” but “no two people are the same” so take care not to generalise or make assumptions about them. Gain general cultural information from resources to assist with conversations to allow you to identify your care recipient’s individual cultural traits.
  • Understand and document how your care recipient’s individual cultural traits impact their care needs.
  • Increase your knowledge about different cultural practices and issues through resources, cultural background information sessions and/or cultural awareness training.

Cultural Traits resources

  • Find information (such as guides and cultural profiles created by other organisations) in the “Cultural Traits, resources” section below.
  • You will also find information including; links to community contacts, cultural profiles, useful weblinks etc. in the “Links” section of the app.

Resources

Generalist

  • Hungarians celebrate Easter.
  • Easter falls on the Sunday after the ecclesiastical Full Moon that falls on or after March 21. Easter is therefore observed between late March and late April and can extend to early May in the Eastern Christian churches.
  • The Hungarian translation of “Happy Easter” is “Boldog Húsvétot”.
  • Hungarian women prepare for Easter celebrations by thoroughly cleaning up the house, decorating, cooking and painting eggs.
  • Common Hungarian Easter foods include; lamb, ham and eggs.
  • Good Friday is a day of fasting for religious Hungarians and only fish is eaten.
  • Dinner on Holy Saturday is usually a big feast.
  • Church services are attended on Easter Sunday.
  • Traditionally, on Easter Monday women wear pretty clothes, men sprinkle scented water or cologne onto them, and in return men may receive a painted egg, a drink, a cake, or a kiss.

Tips

  • Understand the importance of Easter to your care recipient and accept and respect that customs and beliefs about Easter are different from culture to culture.
  • Identify, document and support any spiritual/religious needs of your care recipients.
  • Identify, document and facilitate any dietary requirements.

Resources

Generalist

  • Christmas is celebrated by Hungarians. For Hungarians, Christmas Eve, 24 December is the main day of celebration.
  • The season starts with advent calendars and/or wreaths.
  • Christmas Eve is referred to as “Holy Night”.
  • Hungarians decorate Christmas trees, exchange presents and spend time with family.
  • Hungarian people also often attend midnight Mass on Christmas Eve.

Tips

  • Understand the importance of Christmas to your care recipient and accept and respect that customs and beliefs about Christmas are different from culture to culture.
  • Identify, document and support any spiritual/religious needs of your care recipients.
  • Identify, document and facilitate any dietary requirements.

Resources

Generalist

  • New Year is celebrated by Hungarians.
  • Celebrations begin on New Year’s Eve, 31st of December and continue until New Year’s Day.
  • A common custom is to celebrate with champagne on New Year’s Eve and to give your partner a kiss at midnight.
  • There are a number of historic, cultural New Year's Eve superstitions. These include; burning noisy crackers, not getting into arguments, and not doing sewing or laundry.
  • Traditionally, roast piglet would be served at midnight.
  • On New Year’s Day pork is served (to bring good luck) and poultry is avoided (as it is considered bad luck).
  • New Year is known as "Szil Veszter" in Hungarian.

Tips

  • Understand the importance of New Year to your care recipient and accept and respect that customs and beliefs about New Year are different from culture to culture.
  • Identify, document and support any spiritual/religious needs of your care recipients.
  • Identify, document and facilitate any dietary requirements.

Resources

Generalist

The following dates may be considered as a “special day” by Hungarians:

  • 15th March – National Day

A public holiday in Hungary to celebrate Hungarian independence against Habsburg rule.

  • 20th August - St Stephen’s Day

A celebration of the foundation of the Hungarian state.

  • 23rd October – 1956 Revolution

A public holiday in Hungary to commemorate the Revolution of 1956 and their

  • 6th December – Mikulas

Hungarian children leave their boots out on the evening of the 5th of December. If the child has been good Mikulas leaves a present for the child to find on the 6th December, such as lollies, chocolate Mikulas figurines, small toys or books.

Other special days include

  • Mother's Day
  • Father's Day
  • Birthdays
  • Name Days (a day of the year that is associated with a person’s given name).

Tips

  • Understand the importance of any significant days to your care recipient and accept and respect that customs and beliefs about special days are different from culture to culture.
  • Identify, document and support any spiritual/religious needs of your care recipients.
  • Identify, document and facilitate any dietary requirements.

Resources

Generalist

Leisure activities

  • Common leisure activities include; playing cards, playing pool and socialising.

Traditional cultural activities

  • Folk art
  • Embroidery

Reminiscence                                                                                                                                           

  • Smell or taste - Using smell kits, different cultural foods. Suggestions include; caraway, coriander, cinnamon, dill, garlic and lemon.    
  • Sight - Cultural photographs, slides, films, painting pictures, looking at objects. (Refer to the “Cultural activities resources” section for some visual ideas).                                                         
  • Touch - Touching cultural objects, feeling textures, painting and pottery. Pampering, massage hands, etc. if it is considered culturally appropriate by the care recipient and they trust you to do this without being intrusive. 
  • Sound - Personalised playlists, listening to familiar tunes from the radio, C.D's, YouTube, listening to cultural performances, or making music using various instruments. (Refer to the “Music resources” section for some music ideas).

Tips

  • It is important to understand your care recipient’s activity likes and dislikes and their personal history to plan appropriate activities for them.
  • Your care recipient should be provided with a choice of activities to participate in.
  • Participating in suitable activities can help a person with dementia to achieve purpose and pleasure, help to improve their mood, responses, memory function, increase social interaction, sleep, improve verbal and non-verbal communication and restore a sense of identity. Activities also play a significant part in increasing the person’s wellbeing and confidence which will decrease responsive behaviours or ill-being.
  • It is important that activities are suitable to the level of ability of the person with dementia. People with dementia should be encouraged to participate as independently as possible and be given the choice to participate or to watch others.
  •  Always talk to the person’s doctor before starting them on a new exercise program and ensure the program designed for them takes into account their current health and ability.
  • Alzheimer’s Australia SA, local council libraries or community organisations may be able to loan suitable cultural activities such as music, games, videos etc.

Cultural activity resources

  • For cultural activity information and ideas refer to the “Cultural activities, resources” section below.
  • For local community contact details refer to the “Links, Community Contacts” section of this app.

Resources

Generalist

  • Prominent music in Hungary includes folk, popular and classical music.
  • Hungarian folk music forms part of Hungary’s national identity.
  • Famous Hungarian composers include: Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály.

Tips

  • Music is the most powerful universal language.
  • Music provides an external rhythm and can restore a person back to themselves, and to others, at least for a while.
  • People tend to remain contactable as musical beings on some level right up to the very end of life.
  • It is important to understand your care recipient’s music likes and dislikes and to provide them with their choice of music to listen to.
  • Create a personalised music playlist for your care recipient for their maximum benefit and enjoyment.
  • Provide opportunities for the person with dementia to watch live music performances.
  • Providing music a person relates to can have a wide range of benefits to the care recipient. Benefits may include; helping to improve their mood, responses, memory function, increase social interaction, improve verbal and non-verbal communication and restore a sense of identity.

Resources